Monday, May 25, 2020

The Coca-Cola Company Struggles with Ethical Crises - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3251 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Cause and effect essay Did you like this example? Coca-Cola has the most valuable brand name in the world and, as one of the most visible companies worldwide, has a tremendous opportunity to excel in all dimensions of business performance (Ferrell, Fraedrich, Ferrell, 2008). However, as proven in this case study, Coke has a lot on their plate as the biggest brand name in the world. Ethical issues throughout different aspects of the company, and with multiple leadership changes in the last ten years, Coke has some catching up to do. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Coca-Cola Company Struggles with Ethical Crises" essay for you Create order The company has been involved in racial discrimination, misrepresenting market tests, manipulating earning and disrupting long-term contractual arrangements with distributors. Neville Isdell, the new president of Coke is currently working to improve their reputation cause by some of the problems presented next. The Coca-Cola Company Struggles with Ethical Crises Coca-Cola History Coca-Cola is the worlds largest beverage company that operates the largest distribution system in the world. This allows Coca-Cola companies to serve more than 1 billion of its products to customers each day. The marketing strategy for Coca-Cola promotes products from four out of the five top selling soft drinks to earn sales such as Coke, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite. This process builds strong customer relationships, which gives the opportunity for these businesses to be identified and satisfied. With that being said, customers will be more willing to help Coca-Cola produce and grow. Pepsi and Coca-Cola, between them, hold the dominant share of the world market (soft drink market 2008). Even though Coca-Cola produces and sells big across the United States, in order for the company to expand and grow, they had to build their global soft drink market by selling to customers internationally. For example, both companies continued to target international markets focusing on traditio nal soft drinks, new-age drinks and expanding into the snack-food businesses. With these new changes, Pepsi has 60% of the U.S. Snack-food market while Coca-Cola contributes 85% of its sales outside of the United States. According to the late Roberto Goizueta, Coca-Cola used to be an American company with a large international business. Now we are a large international company with a sizable American business (Ferrell, 2008). Increasing market share is one of the most vital goals for a business such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Competitions between other soft drink companies, false market share reports and other business conducts can cause certain obstacles if the top selling companies allow them too. However, Coca Colas strategy, from the early and late 1800s, of achieving goals such as the international mergers, big market shares, snack food production and overall performance allowed them to strive then and continue to succeed today. Today, most of coke sales are spread throughout t he world in the 2004 Annual Report, Coca Cola had gallon sales distributed as follows: 28% in the United States, 26% in Mexico, Brazil, Japan and ChinaÂÂ  and 46% in spread throughout the world (Coca cola, 2007). This means that Coca Cola makes 70% of its profits from other countries. Coca-Cola must remain vigilant to keep their brand untarnished and their ethical issues to a minimum; their brand is their main key to success. Discussion Coca-Colas Reputation Coca-Cola is admired and known for its strength of brand. It is the most well recognized logo and brand across the world. Coca-Cola retains a commitment and plan to attract, satisfy, and keep customers for the long run. The company has a reputation of having the most loyal customers of the industry. It is this reason that has made Coca-Cola the market leader in the beverage industry year after year. Coca-Cola is extremely active in all aspects of society and environmental issues. Coca-Cola has made numerous steps to prevent harm to the environment in its production of products. Some of these steps include eco friendly facilities and equipment. Coke has been a leader when it comes to environmental issues throughout the years with a major goal of being water neutral, which means every drop of water used by the company will be replenished by 2020. Coca Cola also has a commitment to helping the local aspect by collaborating with different groups and organizations to help with many l ocal and health issues. An example of this would be Coca Colas collaborating with UNAIDS to help with the HIV/Aids epidemic throughout the world. Coca Cola has also had a vast impact on improving education. They have had many programs over the years, which include a scholarship program that has given out over 22 million dollars in grants. Coca-Colas strong emphasis on reputation they have created loyalty, trust among their customers, and the strongest brand recognition of all time. Coca-Cola continues to earn numerous awards including Responsible CEO of the year (2010), most socially responsible company (2008), Worlds most accountable companies (2007), and top 50 most admired companies (2010). Coca-Cola has sought not only to be the worlds largest beverage company but also to improve the quality of life of the communities they serve. Social Responsibility Focus Many companies do not realize the importance of having a connection with the community and to be seen in their eyes as a very strong ethical company. Coca-Cola has taken up a few different social projects that have given them a good amount of support from the public. For example, they have done a philanthropy known as Education On Wheels, in which children are placed into a classroom that history is brought to life, giving them a very rich learning environment. They do different activities that really get the children thinking and force them to develop critical thinking methods. This is a huge thing for Coca-Cola and in our opinion for companies as a whole. The first thing that you must engage in a customer is their emotions, the strongest buying point that people act on. If people start recognizing that a company is doing community based activities for children, they are going to be very prone and likely to want to support and buy the products from the company. The second thing that Coca-Cola has done is setup multiple scholarship funds available for high-school seniors as they make their way into college and the real world. In addition to grants, Coca-Cola provides scholarships to more than 170 colleges, and this number is expected to grow to 287 over the next four years (Ricci, 2010). Coca-Cola was very smart when they went about setting up these different funds for students. There is a huge market with kids graduating high school and those who are currently in college, appealing to these kids will grow a strong interest in their company and will build up their brand image more than ever. It states in the book that it is beneficial to the shareholders by doing this. This is so true with every company because shareholders and people who are invested in the company want to make sure that they are involved in a company that is making ethical decisions and who are giving back to the community in some way, shape or form. As long as Coca-Cola keeps being p ersistent with how they give back into the community and monitor what they are doing on an ethical standpoint, they will keep their customers and stakeholders happy. Crisis Situations Coca-Cola has not always been a squeaky-clean company that never had problems. The stock price of the company is the same price as it was 10 years ago, and this is due to the ethical and legal issues that were associated with the company. A small problem occurred in Belgium in 1999 when a few children fell ill after drinking a product with the Coca-Cola brand on it. They had a recall on the product there in Belgium, but soon after, every item Coca-Cola made was pulled off the shelves in every store. This caused a loss of reputation, which, in turn, made people lose respect for the company and investors started selling their stocks in Coca-Cola. Neighboring countries, such as Luxembourg and the Netherlands, soon followed suit and recalled all products throughout both countries. After Coca-Cola found the root of the problem, that being a bad batch of carbon dioxide, they made an announcement regarding the situation. Being a few days after all this happened was a little too slow fo r the media, and they ate up the story making Coca-Cola look worse than what was said about them. However, this was not the only occurrence. France supposedly had about one hundred people become sick due to mold in the products they consumed. Every single product was banned throughout France until the problem was resolved, but Coca-Cola had yet another slow response to the problem and their reputation was further diminished. During this crisis, Coca-Cola started to run into different problems with their marketing in European countries with anti-trust laws. They wanted to create a merger with themselves and Orangina, a French company, but their overaggressive style turned off the other companies in the deal, which became a problem. Their strong-arm tactics proved to be too much for the foreign countries, and creating a competitive advantage seemed to cross the line of the anti-trust laws in which they were sued for the by the country of Italy. Italy won the court-case, which cause d investigations of the companys competitive practices, which is never a good thing for business. Racial Discrimination Allegations Coca-Cola faced a lawsuit in the spring of 1999. Fifteen hundred African American employees sued Coca-Cola for racial discrimination. Later, the number grew to 2,000 current and former employees. The company was being charged because they put African Americans at the bottom of the pay scale. An African American could have the same job as a Caucasian, but the African American would make $26,000 less each year. This is a huge difference in pay especially if it is only based on the color of a persons skin. In the lawsuit, it states that the top management of Coca-Cola knew about the discrimination for four years and did nothing to stop it. The company denied the accusations, but the public had strong reactions to the case. To rebuild their image, Coca-Cola created a diversity council and paid $193 million to settle the racial discrimination lawsuit. Problems with the Burger King Market Test Just three years after the racial discrimination lawsuit, Coca-Cola found themselves in another allegation. Matthew Whitley, a mid-level Coca-Cola executive filed a whistle-blowing suit. Whitley revealed fraud in a market study that Coca-Cola did on behalf of Burger King. In 2002, Coca-Cola wanted to increase sales so they paired up with Burger King to launch a frozen Coke as a childs snack. Before launching nationally, Burger King wanted to test the product out in the market. Burger King launched a three-week trial run in Richmond, Virginia to see if it was worth the investment. Customers received a coupon for a free frozen Coke when they purchased a Value Meal. When the test first started, sales of the frozen Coke were not looking good. Therefore, Coca-Cola decided to pay at least one individual $10,000 to take hundreds of children to Burger King to purchase Value Meals including the frozen Coke. U.S. attorney general for the North District of Georgia discovered and investigated the fraud. Coca-Cola had to pay Burger King $21 million, the whistle-blower $540,000, and a $9 million pretax write off had to be taken. Coca-Cola disputed the claim; however, it was extremely costly for the company. Not only did they lose millions of dollars, but also the case attracted a lot of negative publicity. In addition, it ruined any relationship that they had with Burger King. Inflated Earnings Related to Channel Stuffing Along with the other ethical dilemmas Coca-Cola was faced with, the company was accused of practicing channel stuffing. According to the textbook, Business Ethics, channel stuffing is the practice of shipping extra inventory to wholesalers and retailers at an excessive rate, typically before the end of a quarter (Ferrell, 2008). The use of channel stuffing is deceptive and a company utilizes it to inflate their sales and earnings figures. When a company ships out their product to a distributor, it is counted as a sale. However, when a company participates in channel stuffing, they count the sale and usually the product is returned or it remains in a warehouse. The company sends their retailers more than they can sell, falsely demonstrating that there is a high demand for the product. It can also be used to hide when the demand of a product declines. The benefit the company would receive from channel stuffing is more earnings on their financial statements and misinforming their i nvestors. In Coca Colas situation, they were accused of sending extra concentrate to Japanese bottlers from 1997 to 1999 to dishonestly inflate their profits. Even though Coca-Cola settled the accusation, the Securities and Exchange Commission concluded that channel stuffing did occur. The company then pressured bottlers into purchasing extra concentrate in return for extended credit. Coca-Cola promised the SEC to avoid engaging in channel stuffing in the future. At this time, the company created an ethics and compliance office, who verifies each financial quarter that they have not altered the terms of payment or extended special credit. Coca-Cola agreed to try to reduce the amount of concentrate held by the international bottlers. Even though they settled the predicament with the SEC, Coca-Cola still faces a lawsuit with shareholders for channel stuffing in Japan, North America, Europe, and South Africa. Trouble with Distributors Coca-Cola also faced serious issues with their distributors beginning in 2006. The company had deliveries of Powerade sent to Wal-Mart in a small Texas test area. When they tried to expand the delivery of Powerade directly to Wal-Mart warehouses all over the US, fifty-four of their bottlers filed lawsuits. The textbook says that Coca-Cola had an agreement regarding Powerade bottlers and that it was a breach of the agreement to provide warehouse delivery to Wal-Mart, even with the use of a subsidiary agent for warehouse delivery. The subsidiary agent, CCE, and Coca-Cola claim that they were trying to meet a request from Wal-Mart for warehouse delivery, just how PepsiCo distributes Gatorade. CCE proposed making payments to some other bottlers in return for taking over the distribution of Powerade. The bottlers were concerned that the proposed arrangement would violate antitrust laws. In addition, they believed that moving forward with their warehouse delivery would deteriorate the va lue of the bottlers businesses. This dilemma had a serious impact on the reputation of the company. When one firm in a channel structure suffers, all the firms in the supply chain suffer in some way as well. Coca-Cola adopted a new enterprise resource system that made their classified information available to a group of partners. Since there is a lack of integrity between Coca-Cola and their partners, the partners assume a greater risk when forming a partnership with the company. These problems with their distributors took a toll on their partner companies, their stakeholders, and finally, their bottom lines. Problems with Unions and Coke Trade Secrets Amongst other international problems faced by Coca-Cola, they ran into trouble related to labor unions as well. The major cause of these problems occurred in Columbia where there were unfortunate deaths of Coca-Cola workers as well as forty-eight who went into hiding and another sixty-five who received death threats. The labor unions claimed that Coca-Cola chose to be involved with illegal dealings surrounding these deaths, death threats and disappearances. Coca-Cola denied any of the allegations and claimed that only one of the deaths was on the premises of the bottling plant that Coke worked with while the other ones were located off the premises where Coke had no involvement. Rather than take swift action Coca-Cola made itself look bad by not offering to help to any of the workers or their families. The further denial along with not providing any aid or action caused animosity with labor unions regarding the case and put another black mark on Coca-Colas currently sliding ethical reputation. Sure there may have been other circumstances behind the problems in Columbia but Coca-Cola did nothing to help anyone else or themselves in the situation. Another problem Coca-Cola faced came a little closer to home. Coca-Cola had three employees get arrested in 2006 for fraudulently and unlawfully stealing and selling trade secrets from Coca-Cola. One of the people accused in the case contacted Pepsi and told them he was a high level employee with Coca-Cola. He then offered them very confidential and detailed information regarding the Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola then received a letter from Pepsi about the offer and contacted the FBI. The FBI found out the informants name was Ibrahim Dimson from Bronx, NY. He provided the FBI with fourteen pages worth of confidential information marked classified as well as top secret products from the Coca-Cola company. Ibrahim got his information from Joya Williams who was an executive administrative assistant for Coca-Colas globa l brand in Atlanta . She had access to all of the information given to the FBI by Dimson who is known in the case as Dirk. This is a big problem for Coca-Cola because not only are the actions of employees a direct responsibility of the company but it also makes the company look bad if there is internal problems. Any company that has people who are willing to give trade secrets to the direct competition need to evaluate the people who are in charge and make a change if the employees feel that disloyal towards a company that is very well known and successful globally. The company should have a system in place to protect its secrets because otherwise any person on the street can go take the syrup formula from Coke and give it to its competitors. This is another ethical situation where the right leadership and system in place could have resolved the issue before it started. Because of poor leadership now Coca-Colas reputation is once again tarnished ethically and 3 company employees are being charged with serious crimes. Ethical Recovery? Even after all of these problems presents, the customers in Europe said that they still feel like coke would behave correctly during these times of crises. Even after all of this they are still ranked third in a PricewaterhouseCoopers survey of the most respected companies in the world. Coke then donated $50 million to a foundation to support programs in minority programs, and hired an ombudsman who reports directly to the CEO in order to settle the racial discrimination lawsuit shown above. Coke is taking the initiative to fix their problems and the international community is seeing that. It seems that since they are taking these precautions to prevent further problems in the future, the European nations, in addition to the United States will be more trusting of Coke in their decisions in the future. Conclusion Coca-Cola is one of the most successful and recognized brand in the world. These ethical problems that have been presented in this paper were not just minor problems for the company, but it seems that they have been able to keep the Coke name relatively untarnished. Coke today strives to reduce their ethical issues to a minimum in order to focus on reaching all around the world. The issues presented to us were all problems that could be fixed and while we gave examples of how they could have handled the problem differently, Coke seems to have handled it in the way that they see fit, and their name still stands as one of the top companies in the world. A company this big has to be very careful with what they do in the public eye, one fatal mistake can be the end of a very successful business.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Stress Is An Epidemic Of The 21st Century - 1858 Words

Your job getting hard to keep a handle on, the to-do list is piling up, the credit-card bills are rising steadily. Your teenager decides they hate school and want to run away with the circus. Or maybe you are feeling down by the constant stimulation you are bombarded with 24 hours a day†¦.images, media, news, television, radio, billboards†¦. Whether it’s due to one thing or another, you just can’t relax. There is no doubt about it, stress is an epidemic of the 21st century and it s can easily creep into our lives and grow there if we let it. It s upsetting that in the USA today over 77% of people are regularly experiencing negative physical symptoms due to stress. For some people this can mean dealing with depression or anxiety, but for others it can mean that they get hungry! So hungry that they add the stress of weight gain to their growing list of problems†¦.. Looking at the nation as a whole it s easy to see that we are more stressed and less healthy than ever before. But it doesn t have to be this way! Trust me, I know what it s like to feel stressed. Just like many of you, I am constantly trying my best to balance the personal, family and professional areas of my life. We wear multiple hats every single day. Don t we? It is so important to have the right tools to calm the mind and nervous system and find that balance we truly need in our lives.Otherwise, the outcome can be disastrous. With heavy minds, bodies andShow MoreRelatedChildhood Obesity800 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿ I. Introduction a. Childhood obesity is a rising epidemic in the United States. b. We can teach children healthy eating habits, incorporate physical activity and lead by example. II. Teaching healthy eating habits a. Educate children about healthy foods and their benefits b. Provide healthy alternatives to unhealthy snacks c. Limit fast food for meals III. Incorporating physical activity a. Limit time for electronic use b. Set a specific amount of time for daily outside activity cRead MoreHeat Wave Environments716 Words   |  3 PagesIncreased temperature has become one of the most visible environmental concerns of the 21st Century. Recent research shows that the overall risk of heat-related illness or death has climbed steadily since 1980, with around 30% of the world’s population now living in climatic conditions that deliver extreme hot temperatures persisting several days to weeks a year (Mora et al. 2017). Between 2000 and 2016, the number of vulnerable people exposed to heat wave events has increased by approximately 125Read MoreStress in the 21st Century Essay2392 Words   |  10 Pagesâ€Å"Stress is an epidemic in the 21st century and impacts on people’s behaviour in many ways. Discuss in light of the literature.† Stress is a term that is frequently used in everyday conversation. The conventional meaning of the word stress – too much to do, too much to worry about – was not part of the vocabulary some fifty years ago. In the 1930s the Hungarian scientist Hans Selye, the godfather of stress research, took an engineering concept and applied it to humans 1. Stress in generalRead MoreHow Can Save Your Life With Stress Relief?963 Words   |  4 PagesHow To Save Your Life With Stress Relief By Matthias K. Maas | Submitted On September 16, 2014 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author Matthias K. Maas How often do you feel on the edge? FrustratedRead MoreThe History of Nursing Science1076 Words   |  4 Pagescomplexities, and because nursing science is so intimately tied to nursing practice, it may be simplest and most appropriate to place the birth of nursing science with the establishment of professional nursing and nursing education in the early 19th century. The most popular version of the founding of the nursing profession revolves around Florence Nightingale, a wealthy British woman who organized a group of female nurses to tend to soldiers in the Crimea in 1854 and subsequently established nursingRead MoreSpreading Of Hiv / Aids1734 Words   |  7 PagesGregory Lewis Professor Zeller International Relations 17 April 2017 The Spreading of HIV/AIDS What is AIDS and how it is spreading throughout the world? Throughout the 20th-21st Century, AIDS has been a top primary concern for many people and how it can spread numerous ways through any physical contact. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The prison situation in the United States is a growing...

Why do we choose to break the law? It’s socially accepted, most people break the law in a minor way, perhaps by speeding or J-walking. Unfortunately some people go to far and end up in prison. At that point society is divided, where is the line that separates us? What affects the outcome of what side of that line you are standing on? Education? Environment? Genetics? What would cause one subject to end up in prison while the other raises a family? Some researchers have concluded that it is in your genetic makeup. From the beginning of your life it’s already decided if you will be a law respecting citizen. Though you can’t deny the importance of the environment you were raised in. A majority of people currently imprisoned is there largely†¦show more content†¦The early release of inmates due to lack of funds results in more criminals out on the street, eventually this will be a problem for you, if not one you have already encountered. If more criminals ar e on the street before they are rehabilitated will cause an increase in crimes. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Aspects of a person’s social upbringing will effect their reactions to situations they encounter in the future. Imagine two boys, both the same age. One is named Hot Dog King, we will call him King for short, and the other boy will go by Tom. Both were exposed to similar situations growing up, until around the age of ten. At that point King’s father was killed by a drunken driver, as he got older he felt angry, saying life was unfair. Due to a lack of income his mother had to move from a middle class neighborhood with a good school to a Housing Project that had a school plagued with gangs, weapons, and drugs. In the new neighborhood King found older males to fill the missing role that his father left. They were usually associated with gangs or were drug dealers, regardless he didn’t know better. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Electronic Data Interchange Essay Research Paper Electronic free essay sample

Electronic Data Interchange Essay, Research Paper Electronic Data Interchange One of the more normally recognized definitions of Electronic Data Interchange, or EDI, has been # 8220 ; the computer-to-computer transportation of information in a structured, pre-determined format. # 8221 ; Traditionally, the focal point of EDI activity has been on the replacing of pre-defined concern signifiers, such as purchase orders and bills, with likewise defined electronic forms. # 8221 ; 1 EDI is the electronic exchange of information between two concern concerns in a particular predetermined format. The exchange occurs when messages that are related to standard concern paperss, such as Purchase Orders and Customer Bills are exchanged. The concern community has arrived at a series of standard dealing formats to cover a broad scope of concern demands. # 8220 ; Each dealing has an extended set of informations elements required for that concern papers, with specified formats and sequences for each information component. The assorted informations elements are built up into sections such as seller reference, which would be made up of informations elements for street, metropolis, province, nothing codification, and country. # 8221 ; 1 All the minutess are so grouped together, and are # 8220 ; preceded by a dealing heading and followed by a dealing dawdler record. If the dealing contains more than one dealing, many purchase orders can be sent to one seller, several dealing groups would be preceded by another type of record, referred to as a functional group heading, and would be followed by a map group trailer. # 8221 ; 1 One of the first topographic points that EDI was implemented was in the buying operations of a concern. Before the execution of EDI, a buying system would let purchasers to reexamine their stuff demands, and so make purchase orders, which would be printed out and get off. The provider would have the purchase order, and manually come in it into their client transportation system. The stuff would be shipped, and an bill would be printed, which would so be mailed back to the provider. In this illustration, even if the purchased stuffs were shipped and received on the same twenty-four hours the purchase order was received, the rhythm clip could be every bit much as a hebdomad, depending on the mail and the backlog at the provider # 8217 ; s order entry system. With the debut of EDI, this scenario changed dramatically. Buying agents would still reexamine their stuff demands and make their purchase orders, but alternatively of publishing them out and get offing them, the purchase orders would be transmitted straight to the providers over an electronic web. On the provider # 8217 ; s terminal, the dealing would be automatically received and posted. This new procedure could let the cargo of stuff on the same twenty-four hours the purchase order was sent. Suppliers could direct their transportation certification electronically to the purchaser in the signifier of a shipment presentment, supplying the purchaser with accurate receiving paperss prior to the existent reaching of the stuff. The provider gained an extra advantage every bit good, since now the bill could be sent straight to the client # 8217 ; s histories collectible system, rushing payment to the provider. Speed, Accuracy and Economy are the benefits of EDI. Whether executing of EDI was in the country of purchase orders, advanced shipment presentment, or automatic invoicing, several immediate advantages could be realized by interchanging paperss electronically. Information traveling between computing machines moves more quickly, and with small or no human intervention. Sending an electronic message across the state takes proceedingss, or less. Mailing the same papers will normally take a lower limit of one twenty-four hours. Courier services can cut down the clip, but increase the cost. Facsimile transmittals work good for little paperss, but for several hundred pages, it # 8217 ; s non a executable option. When surrogate agencies of papers transportation are used, they suffer from the major drawback of necessitating re-entry into the client order system, acknowledging the chance of identifying mistakes. However, information that passes straight between computing machines without holding to be re-entered eliminates the opportunity of written text mistake. There is about no opportunity that the receiving computing machine will invert figures, or add an excess figure ; therefore stoping the human mistake component. The cost of directing an electronic papers is non a great trade more than regular first category postage. Add to that the cost decreases afforded by extinguishing the re-keying of informations, human handling, routing, and bringing. The consequence is a significant decrease in the cost of a dealing. Expense, Networking Complexity, and Options are the drawbacks of EDI. Although these benefits are converting, existent credence and executing of EDI was far less common than might be expected. For all the benefits, the technological jobs of EDI presented a figure of major faltering blocks. # 8220 ; Computers, particularly mainframes, and their concern application systems were complex and expensive. Chiefly functioning the # 8220 ; on the border # 8221 ; maps of a concern, they were non regarded as being to the full joined into all concern activities # 8221 ; . 2 Traditionally, the mainframe-computing consciousness was viewed as an information reservoir. EDI required that information engineering be extended beyond nucleus maps. So while there were significant nest eggs to be gained from the usage of EDI, the cost of re-designing and deploying package applications to conform EDI into an bing portfolio of concern applications was high plenty to countervail the awaited advantages. The demand for telecommunications capableness posed a 2nd major barrier for EDI execution. Beyond the computing machine, a basic demand of EDI is a agency to convey and have information to and from a broad assortment of clients or providers. This required a big investing in computing machine webs. Unlike the mail, to direct electronic paperss there must be a specific point-to-point electronic way for the papers to take. # 8220 ; Companies were either required to develop extended, and expensive webs, or rely on intermittent point-to-point modem communication. # 8221 ; 2 Because of the technological complexness and cost of execution, cheaper options hurt the widespread usage of EDI. To derive some of the advantages of EDI without the high monetary value of computing machine hardware, package and webs, many advanced options were developed. # 8220 ; Overnight messenger service, facsimile machines, and the ability to give clients limited entree to mainframes through dense terminuss provided speedy and moderately priced options to ask foring a major change of concern environments. # 8221 ; 3 The past decennary has seen an tremendous alteration in the computer science environment in most concerns, with the new strain of little, cheap and powerful personal computing machines. With the Personal computer, computing machines have literally moved out of the cellars and back suites, and onto the desktops, and at that place has been a decrease in monetary value. # 8220 ; A client based computing machine, or waiter can be obtained today for about the same cost as a little mini-computer of 10 old ages ago, but the same dollars are now purchasing a machine that has mainframe calculating capableness in a PC-sized box. Personal computer # 8217 ; s are now economical plenty that their monetary value approaches the same cost per user as a dense terminus did attached to that same mini-computer. # 8221 ; 3 The same betterments are found in the country of communications. It is now platitude for computing machine users in retail shops to entree computing machines many 100s of stat mis off. Now, the terminus or Personal computer on a desk in a steel works may really be utilizing informations from several computing machines, each in a different location. # 8220 ; Progresss in networking and client-server environments have encouraged the consciousness that while information is certainly one of the most valuable assets of any concern, information that is shared within and between companies becomes a most powerful asset. # 8221 ; 4 Businesss have spent 1000000s of dollars on computing machine engineering to automatize production procedures. # 8220 ; Computer-assisted fabrication systems, such as one might happen in the food market industry, have become platitude. It is now possible for stock list ingestion to be known instantly, and the impact of that ingestion on buying demands and maestro production programming can be recalculated continuously. # 8221 ; 4 Computers can now be used to imitate mill production, optimising procedures and leting applied scientists to find the best use of equipment and forces. If there is a sudden displacement in demand, what will be the impact of major alterations to production agendas? However, it does really small good to change a production agenda if the supply line can non respond to the changed demand. # 8220 ; As the mechanization processes inside the four walls of fabrication works reached adulthood, it became evident that to derive the full benefits of the increased velocity and flexibleness could non be achieved every bit long as the procedure of having natural stuffs, and administering finished merchandises remained unchanged. # 8221 ; 5 In applications of EDI, recalculating natural stuff demands on an hourly footing offered small betterment every bit long as the ordination of natural stuffs was still based on traditional methods of puting purchase orders. The rapid displacement in production often would intend hours on the phone obtaining stuff. While the fabrication floor could run on a # 8220 ; merely in clip # 8221 ; footing, the buying section would often hold to run on a # 8220 ; merely in instance # 8221 ; footing. In an exigency, obtaining stuff would hold to trust on the # 8220 ; whatever it takes # 8221 ; methodological analysis: premiums, surcharges, and particular bringings. Businesss began to force the boundaries of EDI. The initial public presentation of EDI looked at the paperss used in concern, and replaced them with electronic paperss. However, this public presentation did non turn to how the paperss were being used. It simply automated the method. # 8220 ; The demand for greater velocity and flexibleness led the concern analysts to take a serious expression at how the paperss were being used, and this led to an inspection and repair in the manner the paperss are being used. Analysis has looked non at replacing the paperss, but at extinguishing them wholly. With this attack, a new partnership between the client and provider was born. Rather than hold buying agents review natural stuff demands and topographic point purchase orders, purchase orders can be placed automatically, based on pre-determined stock list levels. # 8221 ; 7 The Kroger Company has begun to do their stock list degrees available to their providers via EDI, # 8220 ; leting the provider to set their ain production agendas to react more rapidly to their client # 8217 ; s demands. With saloon cryptography and point-of-sale informations aggregation, refilling of retail stock list or cargo of finished merchandises can now be triggered by information collected right at the hard currency register. # 8221 ; 7 With the alterations in the computing machine engineering and the addition in information engineering, they both play a function in today # 8217 ; s fabrication, distribution and service environments, # 8220 ; along with alterations in concern doctrine, has changed the definition of Electronic Data Interchange. The definition must now be more across-the-board than simply the rapid transmittal of electronic documents. # 8221 ; 8 EDI must now be viewed as # 8220 ; an enabling engineering that provides for the exchange of critical informations between computing machine applications back uping the procedure of concern spouses by utilizing agreed-to, standardised, informations formats # 8221 ; .8 EDI is no longer simply a manner to convey paperss. It is a agency to # 8220 ; travel informations between companies that will be used by computing machine systems to order stuffs, agenda production, agenda and path transit, and refill stock. # 8221 ; 7 To stay competitory in today # 8217 ; s economic system, concerns are being forced to re-evaluate the manner they do concern with their clients and their sellers. The focal point of these relationships has moved towards greater velocity through shorter dealing rhythms. With the dramatic additions in public presentation of computing machine engineering, the impact of some of the drawbacks that led to limited executing of EDI have being reduced. What used to necessitate mainframe power can now be handled on computing machines that fit handily on or under the desk, and can run in the office, warehouse, production floor or usage by a path adult male. There is a revolution traveling on in the package industry. The elapsed clip from construct to deployment of new package is being dramatically reduced. Software developers can now bring forth bundles that can run on a assortment of hardware platforms, leting them concentrate on presenting greater functionality and flexibleness to their package bundles, instead than passing valuable development clip and dollars on customization. # 8220 ; This revolution in hardware velocity, power and flexibleness, combined with an progressively choice of high-quality package merchandises allows concern to acquire a higher return for each dollar they invest in computing machine engineering. It has allowed concern to solidify the information demands of their ain processes. # 8221 ; 7 With betterments in their ain procedures, advancement can come to a arrest if the supply and distribution concatenation is non on the same page. So as the procedures have been put under control, it has besides forced direction to concentrate on chances in their client and supplier relationships # 8211 ; the country EDI ignored. The revolution in computing machine engineering has led to another revolution # 8230 ; # 8220 ; The replacing of dictatorial or adversarial relationships between clients and providers with information partnerships. In fact, for some clip in the vocabulary of EDI, two concerns engaged in electronic trading of information have been referred to as # 8220 ; merchandising partners. # 8221 ; 9 The job was it took direction a long clip to recognize that partnership had to widen much further than merely holding to merchandise electronic versions of paper paperss. By interrupting down the barriers between sellers and clients, another order of addition in velocity and flexibleness could be introduced. # 8220 ; The true value of EDI comes when concern can get down to merchandise or portion information. The scenario of EDI public presentation painted a image where normally used paper paperss were replaced by electronic versions of the same paperss. Purchase orders, shipment presentments, invoicing, and histories collectible began to take part in the process. # 8221 ; 9 The concern of fixing the electronic paperss is easy the most demanding portion of puting up EDI in any concern. The assortments of methods available to bring forth the electronic paperss are every bit different as there are concerns and applications, which include # 8230 ; transcribing informations, heightening bing applications, and buying package The Kroger Company has several hundred providers, and the opportunity of acquiring them all to hold upon the Kroger # 8217 ; s definition of a purchase order format was non traveling go on, # 8220 ; peculiarly if since those providers are besides covering with 100s of other clients. This would necessitate a alone set of regulations for each partnership. The resulting pandemonium would rapidly drive clients and providers likewise to return to paper signifiers irrespective of the benefits or savings. # 8221 ; 7 The solution has been found in the development over the last T wo decennaries of a comprehensive set of national and international criterions. â€Å"These criterions, typically developed by specific industry or concern groups, have provided normally agreed upon formats for usage in virtually every type of concern communication.†3 These criterions provide a structured manner of forming information in a # 8220 ; dealing # 8221 ; format with definitions for the format and arrangement of each separate piece of informations. # 8220 ; Translation to a standard format can be accomplished by internal systems or it can be done by a separate bundle of package. Regardless of the agencies you choose for interlingual rendition, the terminal consequence of the procedure will be an end product file generated in a specific format that any endorser to the criterion can understand. # 8221 ; 3 In a simple one-to-one EDI relationship, conveying informations can be every bit simple as doing a modem connexion, and directing the file. However, this would go impractical with more than merely a little figure of sellers. If a maker has to direct out 1000s of PO # 8217 ; s each hebdomad to 100s of providers ; it would necessitate a little ground forces to convey all of their PO # 8217 ; s. Even if the maker had an extended web available, successful transmittal would necessitate that all sellers be linked into the web. Supplying a connexion to the transmitter # 8217 ; s computing machine to let receiving systems to log on and roll up their informations would be one manner to avoid these jobs, but it poses a serious security job. It will work on a limited footing, but merely with controls, including separate hardware to insulate the system being accessed by 3rd parties. Few companies would accept these attacks, for any extended usage of EDI. If these options were required, pandemonium would reign, and one time once more most EDI users would rapidly return to fixing printed paperss, so that they could trust on the mail to administer all their paperss. Fortunately, the EDI user doesn # 8217 ; Ts have to trust on either of these options. They can turn to third party web services, normally referred to as # 8220 ; Value Added Networks # 8221 ; or VAN # 8217 ; s. The VAN maps as a glade house for electronic minutess, in consequence helping as a private electronic mail service. The VAN routes each seller # 8217 ; s informations to their ain electronic letter box. The VAN provides an reply to the pressing job of security. It allows merchandising spouses to be secure in the cognition that the can merchandise information, but at the same clip avoid giving information off. Neither party has entree to the other # 8217 ; s systems, but can still freely interchange agreed-upon information. In add-on, a full service VAN can supply other services, including interlingual rendition, criterions conformity checking, and EDI package to ease the execution procedure. This procedure is the contrary of outward interlingual rendition. Once the PO # 8217 ; s have been placed in the electronic letter boxs by the VAN, the seller can recover them at their convenience. # 8220 ; The following measure in the procedure is to # 8220 ; de-map # 8221 ; the file, interpreting it into the specific format required by the seller # 8217 ; s application ( s ) . # 8220 ; Since a standard format has been used, the seller will easy be able to first acknowledge which company the dealing is from, and so which type of dealing it is. When interlingual rendition is complete it can be made useable in any coveted format to the receiving system # 8217 ; s internal applications. The Kroger Company # 8220 ; experimented with VAN, but rapidly purchased the package bundle Chain-Tracks # 8221 ; . 8 Are there particular tools required to implement EDI? Yes they are criterions, package, hardware, and service suppliers. The demand for definition of criterions is absolute in guaranting successful EDI. Without an in agreement upon set of criterions, EDI would be impracticable from the start. There is a set of public criterions that define the demands for a assortment of EDI dealing types, so that any concern concerns will be addressed within the guidelines of an internationally recognized set of criterions. Companies have been interchanging informations electronically for over three decennaries. Before the being of national and international criterions, companies wishing to interchange information had to find themselves acceptable formats for the interchange of informations. This resulted in the outgrowth of # 8220 ; in fact # 8221 ; criterions defined by those companies with the fiscal clout to enforce the demand for informations interchange on their providers or clients. They basically dictated the footings under which electronic trading would take topographic point. While this did supply some criterions, existent jobs arose when every bit obstinate spouses collided with each other. # 8220 ; The consequence of such struggles was that the smaller or newer participants in the EDI market topographic point were forced to detect a assortment of conventions, depending on who the receiver of the information was to be. Confusion aside, an ineluctable effect was increased cost for EDI implementation. # 8221 ; 11 As the assorted criterions collided in the market topographic point, the consequence was the development of industry involvement groups formed to seek to cut down the pandemonium and confusion to manageable degrees. The first was the Transportation Data Coordinating Committee, whose involvement country was the standardisation of the minutess required for trade and transit. Get downing in the late 1980 # 8217 ; s, many of these criterions organic structures began to unite their separate criterions under the bureau of the American National Standards Institute. All major American EDI dealing groups are now covered under the general umbrella of the Accredited Standards Committee, ( ASC ) , and are referred to as the X12 group of criterions. The ASC X12 Standards apply merely for the United States. However, more and more companies are required to take part in the international exchange of electronic informations. The progressively planetary extent of many concern endeavors requires that companies may hold to at least be cognizant of the other major criterions groups. The United Nations has provided a forum to supply a common set of international criterions, under the general authorization of the United Nations. Thus the Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport ( EDIFACT ) group was formed. EDI can non be undertaken without package. # 8220 ; There is a wide scope of options available, whether for low-priced first-time execution or for the integrating of EDI into a comprehensive portfolio of bing software. # 8221 ; 7 # 8220 ; Design and development of computing machine package is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. The ready handiness of commercial third-party bundles or VAN # 8217 ; s will order against the internal development of in-house interlingual rendition bundles, since the one-year cost of package licencing for third-party package will be less than the cost of developing and keeping bundles internally. The clip required for internal package development will widen the valuable clip it will take to deploy an EDI package. # 8221 ; 4 There may be other grounds for developing a interlingual rendition bundle internally. # 8220 ; If The Kroger Company owned or controlled its distribution like it controls its retail mercantile establishments ; it could be cost effectual to make a customized EDI bundle tailored specifically to the company # 8217 ; s distribution demands. The major drawback to such an attack is that public presentation of new dealing types will necessitate extra development non merely within the internal systems, but besides within the EDI interlingual rendition software. # 8221 ; 7 With the go oning growing of EDI has besides come the growing of a comprehensive library of EDI interlingual rendition package bundles with monetary value tickets that range from really cheap to important. The extent of these bundles ranges from modest PC-based transcriber bundles to large-scale systems for proprietary minicomputers and mainframes, complete with house communications characteristics, and occupation and transmittal programming capableness. Basically a bundle can be found for merely about every budget. Third-party interlingual rendition bundles offer several advantages over in-house development, which are: comprehensive criterions coverage, cost effectivity, and reduced care Before the widespread handiness and credence of PC # 8217 ; s and UNIX workstations, companies were reasonably much bound by their bing restrictive hardware base. This dictated that EDI be implemented on whatever hardware was available and pick of package was badly limited by hardware options A concern seeking to get down EDI for the first clip likely already has a Personal computer that can be used to run an EDI interlingual rendition bundle and communications package. Even if such hardware is non available, or is outdated, it can be obtained at a comparatively little cost. The principal demands for put ining most PC-based bundles are non any more demanding than today # 8217 ; s word-processing or spreadsheet bundles. For package bundles designed specifically for restrictive hardware, # 8220 ; the price-tag is likely to be higher than for a bundle designed for a UNIX workstation, because of the more limited market and the more specialised proficient expertness required. Besides this difference can be expected to turn as Reduced Instruction Set Computing ( RISC ) based unfastened systems computing machines have gained popularity. Many package sellers are turning from purely sole package to development of bundles that will run under the UNIX runing system on a assortment of RISC platforms with merely minor alterations and differences. # 8221 ; 5 RISC computing machines, because of their power, have put mainframe calculating in a PC-sized bundle. They have gained popularity for client-server applications where a local Personal computer will incorporate a package bundle that accesses distant databases. Another characteristic of the RISC/UNIX systems is their # 8220 ; unfastened architecture # 8221 ; design. # 8220 ; Open Architecture for the EDI user means that the informations on the system can be much more easy shared with package on other platforms through standardized file entree protocols. # 8221 ; 5 These UNIX systems are available in a broad scope of public presentation constellations. At the low terminal the platforms are comparable in power to the larger Personal computer with the added advantage of back uping multiple users. At the high terminal they compare favourably to mainframe capableness. Early innovators in EDI were faced with technically confusion and a dearly-won pick when it came to pass oning with their trading spouses. So early usage of EDI tended to be # 8220 ; in-house # 8221 ; instead than between companies, and was limited to those who could afford to develop and keep extended internal electronic webs. Implementing EDI in a concern does non necessitate to be hard, and the benefits can be enormous. It is of import to understand that EDI is a tool, and non a panacea. EDI is an undertaking necessitating a partnership ; nil can halt its possible. A good illustration would be between Kroger and it # 8217 ; s sellers and the exchanging of electronic invoicing, and automatic fund transportation for payment helps Kroger cut down the rhythm of their history receivables. In this instance, everybody goes home a victor. For start-up EDI undertakings, limited aims with seeable benefits should be sought out. If Kroger had selected, for its first undertaking, an ambitious program to wholly pass their full retail distribution procedure, they may good be trying excessively big a first measure. Kroger selected a more realistic initial undertaking this was computing machine assisted ordination ( CAO ) . CAO assists the retail shop in telling merchandise when the purchased merchandise is scanned at the checkstand. The CAO system keeps path of all day-to-day merchandise motion within a certain clip frame ( normally 28 yearss ) . The CAO system produces a recommended order of merchandises for shop personal to reexamine. They verify truth of on-hand merchandise degree, future publicities and adjust consequently. The one draw back to CAO is the teller. For case, if the client buys six different spirits of Kool-Aid, and the cashier scans all as cherry, CAO will urge purchasing merely the red spirit ; when in fact cherry is non the lone spirit needed. An of import facet of execution planning is affecting all concerned parties at all stairss of the undertaking. Good communicating is indispensable, so that freshly installed EDI capablenesss will alter the manner concern is done, non interrupt it. One of the most valuable ways of supplying good communicating and undertaking direction is to specify an EDI coordinator # 8217 ; s place. This place should be filled by an person with strong cognition of both the concern demands being addressed, and the proficient demands of EDI. A critical measure in execution planning is the proving procedure. Before users are really committed to depending on their new EDI map, they must be comfy that the procedure really works faithfully, all the clip. This must be proven beyond uncertainty by carefully constructed testing and proof processs. Since information is being transferred to another trading spouse, it will be necessary to guarantee both internal and external users that correct information is being traded. In any undertaking, it is necessary to cognize what the true cost of execution will be, and it is no different with EDI executions. Some of the costs are obvious, such as hardware and package. The unknown cost factor is developing your staff. In decision, EDI requires a big figure of picks. What are the concern aims? What tools should be used? How big is the purpose? Hopefully, the one pick that will be easy to do will be the pick to take the first measure with EDI. It is of import to repeat that EDI is merely a tool, and if that tool is started without carefully specifying aims, it will non populate up to outlooks. A cardinal point to retrieve is when tools are applied to the incorrect procedure ; it can perplex a concern and thwart its users. With right defined aims, and a carefully considered program of executing, it is a tool of great power. EDI will add velocity and better truth in any concern. 2 Bridge Software Home page 22 January 2000 *http: //* 1 Compaq Corporation. Home page. 21 January 2000 *http: //* 3 National Institute of Standards and Technology, Home Page. 22 January 2000 * hypertext transfer protocol: //* 5 QRS Corporation. Home Page 22 January 2000 *http: //* 6 Simplix Corporation. Home Page 23 January 2000 * hypertext transfer protocol: //* 4 TIE Corporate. Home page. 22 January 2000 *http: //* 10 Bouden, Scott. Personal interview. 20 January 2000 9 Bramlett, Rusty. Personal interview. 21 January 2000 8 Coffey, Tracey. Personal interview. 20 January 2000 11 Holder, Thomas. Personal interview. 24 January 2000 13 Tegl, Eric. Personal interview. 26 January 2000 12 Winkler, Lisa. Personal interview. 25 January 2000 7 White, Bill. Personal interview. 20 January 2000 Business and Technology Electronic Data Interchange Andy Schoen Communication and Technology, Comm 106 Professor Jack Miller 15 February 2000

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Frankenstein Society and Alienation Essay Example

Frankenstein Society and Alienation Essay Alienation in Frankenstein In Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, the monster is used to show how society alienates people because of certain characteristics. Victor Frankenstein’s creation is rejected by everyone that it comes into contact with. The reason that the monster is so abhorred is because of its hideous appearance. Although the monster has amiable intentions, the people around him immediately assume that he is completely evil. The monster is rejected by complete strangers, by people he loves, and even by his own creator. The importance that society places upon a person’s appearance is evidenced by the way that Frankenstein’s monster is judged based on his monstrous facade. The monster’s appearance causes anyone who sees him to flee, depriving the monster from having the chance to show its inner goodness. The monster’s first encounter with a human that it can recall occurred when he entered a small hut belonging to an old man. Immediately upon seeing the monster the man screamed and ran away. The creature never made any threatening gesture nor said any aggressive phrase. The mere sight of the monster was enough to make the man assume that the unknown creature was a monster with evil thoughts and intentions. The monster had a similar experience in a village the following day. In this case, the villagers reacted in different ways. One of them faints, some scream, and the majority of them attack the monster. Society tends to judge people according to their appearance, and in this case the villagers judged that the creature was evil, dangerous, and something to be feared. Their decision was to either hurt or drive away the monster before it would the chance to hurt them. We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein Society and Alienation specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein Society and Alienation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein Society and Alienation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer They fact that the monster might not want to hurt them never enters their minds. A similar experience occurs later in the novel when the monster witnesses a young girl slip into a river. Although the monster has been spurned by humans before, he still has enough good feeling left inside of him to want to save the girl. He pulls her from the river and attempts to resuscitate her. A man who had been with the girl sees the monster crouched over her and concludes that the monster must be hurting, or have already hurt her. He takes the girl away from the monster and runs away. The monster follows due to his concern and the man shoots him. Again this was a case of a person judging the monster due to the way he looks. The man assumed that the creature was an evil monster intent on hurting others. This resulted in him shooting the monster, someone that he should really have been grateful to for saving the life of the girl. Not only is the monster alienated by complete strangers, but he is also rejected by the people that he loves because of his appearance. Early in his life the monster comes to live by the home of the De Laceys. The monster watches them daily, and feels nothing but respect and admiration for them. He looks for ways to ease their suffering. When he discovers that eating their food distresses them, he stops at once. He observes Felix leaving the cottage and returning later with wood and decides to chop wood for the cottagers at night in order to make Felix’s life easier. The monster spends months preparing for the day when he will finally be able to talk to the family, his happiness dependent upon the outcome. He hopes that he will be able to persuade them to see past his deformity using the eloquence that he has developed while watching them. The monster first attempts to talk to the old man. This person is the only one who ever gives the monster the chance to talk without immediately judging him. The thing that sets the man apart from the others is the fact that he is blind. Although the monster has a breakthrough with the old man, when the rest of the De Laceys return and see the monster they react the same way that everyone else has. Felix sees the monster by his father and assumes that he is trying to hurt him. In response, he attacks the monster. The family is so scared of the monster that they leave their home, at a great financial loss. They hate the creature that had nothing but warm feelings for them, thereby helping to turn him into the monster that they had assumed he was. Victor Frankenstein also rejects the monster and is disgusted by his appearance. Although Frankenstein constructed the monster and therefore had control over the way he looked, he creates something that he despises. It seems that Frankenstein hates the monster because it is unnatural, a creature that is different to everything that has ever existed. Victor also judges the monster by his appearance. He believes that he has brought some great evil upon the earth. He doesn’t take the time to learn the monster’s true nature. He abandons his creation, rejecting his responsibilities as a creator because of the disgust he feels. Society continually alienates the monster because he is hideous. Beauty is associated with goodness, while ugliness is coupled with evil. Due to the cruel actions of the people who judge him, the creature who is initially good is gradually turned into the evil monster that society automatically assumes he is.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Analytical Writing Section of the Gre Essays

Analytical Writing Section of the Gre Essays Analytical Writing Section of the Gre Essay Analytical Writing Section of the Gre Essay if any. * 9 Without generalists, society becomes inward-looking and eventually inefficient. Without a society that recongnizes the impotance of braod-mindedness and fora for sharing generalities, individuals become isolated. Thus, while our form of society necessitates specialists, generalists are equally important. Specialists drive us forward in a series of thrusts while generalists make sure we are still on the jousting field and know what the stakes are. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 6 This is an outstanding analysis of the issue- insightful, well reasoned, and highly effective in its use of language. The introductory paragraph announces the writers position on the issue and provides the context within which the writer will develop that position: In this era of rapid social and technological change leading to increasing life complexity and psychological displacement . . . . The argument itself has two parts. The first part presents a compelling case for specialization, primarily in the field of medicine. The second part presents an equally compelling, well-organized case against overspecialization based on three main reasons: logical (narrowly trained specialists often fail to understand the whole) moral (usually generalists understand what is needed for the greater good) personal (specializing/pigeonholing too early can be psychologically damaging) The arguments careful line of reasoning is further strengthened by the skillful use of expert testimony (quotation from a prominent medical researcher) and vivid metaphor (to inspect only ones toenails is to ignore the whole body). It is not only the reasoning that distinguishes this response. The language is precise and often figurative (bogged down in a Sargasso sea of information overload, a pile of useless discoveries, and specialists drive us forward in a series of thrusts, while generalists make sure we are still on the jousting field). The reader is constantly guided through the argument by transitional phrases and ideas that help organize the ideas and move the argument forward. This is an exceptionally fine response to the topic. Essay Response – Score 5 Specialists are not overrated today. More generalists may be needed, but not to overshadow the specialists. Generalists can provide a great deal of information on many topics of interest with a broad range of ideas. People ho look at the overall view of things can help with some of the large problems our society faces today. But specialists are necessary to gain a better understanding of more in depth methods to solve problems or fixing things. One good example of why specialists are not overrated is in the medical field. Doctors are necessary for people to live healthy lives. When a person is sick, he may go to a general practitioner to find out the cause of his problems. Usually, this kind of generalized doctor can help most ailments with simple and effective treatments. Sometimes, though, a sickness may go beyond a family doctors knowledge or the prescribed treatments dont work the way they should. When a sickness progresses or becomes diagnosed as a disease that requires more care than a family doctor can provide, he may be referred to a specialist. For instance, a person with constant breathing problems that require hospitalization may be suggested to visit an asthma specialist. Since a family doctor has a great deal of knowledge of medicine, he can decide when his methods are not effective and the patient needs to see someone who knows more about the specific problem; someone who knows how it begins, progresses, and specified treatments. This is an excellent example of how a generalied person may not be equipped enough to handle something as well as a specialized one can. Another example of a specialist who is needed instead of a generalist involves teaching. In grammar school, children learn all the basic principles of reading, writing, and arithematic. But as children get older 10 and progress in school, they gain a better understanding of the language and mathematical processes. As the years in school increase, they need to learn more and more specifics and details about various subjects. They start out by learning basic math concepts such as addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication. A few years later, they are ready to begin algebraic concepts, geometry, and calculus. They are also ready to learn more advanced vocabulary, the principles of how all life is composed and how it functions. One teacher or professor can not provide as much in depth discussion on all of these topics as well as one who has learned the specifics and studied mainly to know everything that is currently known about one of these subjects. Generalized teachers are required to begin molding students at a very early age so they can get ready for the future ahead of them in gaining more facts about the basic subjects and finding out new facts on the old ones. These are only two examples of why specialists are not highly overrated and more generalists are not necessary to the point of overshadowing them. Generalists are needed to give the public a broad understanding of some things. But , specialists are important to help maintain the status, health, and safety of our society. Specialists are very necessary. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 5 This writer presents a well-developed analysis of the complexities of the issue by discussing the need for both the generalist and the specialist. The argument is rooted in two extended examples, both well chosen. The first (paragraph 2) begins with a discussion of the necessity for medical generalists (the general practitioner) as well as specialists and moves into an example within the example (breathing problems and the need for an asthma specialist). This extension from the general to the specific characterizes the example in the next paragraph as well. There, the discussion centers on education from elementary to high school, from basic arithmetic to calculus. The smooth development is aided by the use of appropriate transitions: but, usually, and for instance, among others. The essay ends by revisiting the writers thesis. While the writer handles language and syntax well, several lapses in clarity keep this otherwise well-argued response out of the 6 category. The problems vary from the lack of a pronoun referent (When a sickness progresses or becomes diagnosed, . . . he may be referred to a specialist) to an error in parallel structure (how it begins, progresses and specified treatments), to loose syntax and imprecise language (Generalized teachers are required to begin molding students at a very early age so they can get ready for the future ahead of them in gaining more facts about the basic subjects. ) Essay Response – Score 4 Specialists are just what their name says: people who specialize in one part of a very general scheme of things. A person cant know everything there is to know about everything. This is why specialists are helpful. You can take one general concept and divide it up three ways and have three fully developed different concepts instead of one general concept that no one really knows about. Isnt it better to really know something well, than to know everything half-way. Take a special ed teacher compared to a general ed teacher. The general ed teacher knows how to deal with most students. She knows how to teach a subject to a student that is on a normal level. But what would happen to the child in the back of the room with dyslexia? She would be so lost in that general ed classroom that she would not only not learn, but be frustrated and quite possibly, have low self-esteem and hate school. If there is a special ed teacher there who specializes in children with learning disabilities, she can teach the general ed teacher how to cope with this student as well as modify the curriculum so that the student can learn along with the others. The special ed teacher can also take that child for a few hours each day and work with her on her reading difficulty one-on-one, which a general ed teacher never would have time to do. 11 A general ed teacher cant know what a special ed teacher knows and a special ed teacher cant know what a general ed teacher knows. But the two of them working together and specializing in their own things can really get a lot more accomplished. The special ed teacher is also trained to work on the childs self-esteem, which has a big part in how successful this child will be. Every child in the United States of America has the right to an equal education. How can a child with a learning disability receive the same equal education as a general ed student if there was no specialist there to help both teacher and child? Another thing to consider is how a committee is supposed to work together. Each person has a special task to accomplish and when these people all come together, with their tasks finished, every aspect of the communitys work is completely covered. Nothing is left undone. In this case there are many different specialists to meet the general goal of the committee. When you take into account that a specialist contributes only a small part of the generalist aspect, it seems ridiculous to say that specialists are overrated. The generalists looks to the specialists any time they need help or clarification on their broad aspect. Specialists and generalists are part of the same system, so if a specialist is overrated, then so is a generalist. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 4 This is an adequate analysis of the issue. After a somewhat confusing attempt to define specialists in the introductory paragraph, the writer presents a pertinent example (the special education teacher) to illustrate the importance of specialists. The example dominates the response and contributes positively to the overall score of 4. The second example, how a committee works, is less persuasive. However, it does seem to help clarify the writers definition of general as an umbrella term meaning the total collection of what specialists know about a topic. Although the writers views about the relationship between generalist and specialist are unusual, they do become clear in the conclusion of the essay. Yet, these ideas are not developed in sufficient depth or with enough logical control to earn a score higher than 4. The writing is generally error free. There are few problems in sentence structure, grammar, and usage, although the phrasing is at times imprecise and wordy. Overall, this response displays clearly adequate control of the elements of written English. Essay Response – Score 3 To quote the saying, Jack of all trades, master of none, would be my position on the statement. I feel specialists in all areas of knowledge lead to a higher standard of living for everyone. Specializing in different areas allows us to use each others talents to the highest level and maximize potential. As an example, if a person required brain surgery, would they rather have a brain surgeon or a general practitioner doing the work? Clearly a specialist would do the better job and give the patient a chance at a better life. A university education starts by laying the groundwork for general knowledge but then narrows down to a specific field. General knowledge and a broad prospective are important, but if there was no focus on specific areas, our overall knowledge as a population would be seriously lessened. Another example of specialists not being overated would be international trade. Not every nation can provide for themselves. They need to get products and ideas from other parts of the world because they are better at providing them. This allows for a growing economy if two different nations can provide each other with two different products. If one country can produce oranges better than another, it should trade the oranges for the fish that it can not produce. If generalizing was the normal thing to do and both 12 countries tried to produce all kinds of products, the countries would probably survive, but not have the standard of living they presently have. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 3 The writers position is clear: specialists are important and necessary. However, the position is not adequately supported with reasons or logical examples. Paragraph 1 presents an appropriate example of the brain surgeon versus the general practitioner. However, the example of an increasingly narrow university education in paragraph 2, contains only two sentences and is seriously undeveloped. It does little to advance the writers position. Paragraph 3 offers yet another example, the most developed of all. Unfortunately, this example is not clearly logical. The writer tries to argue that the specialist country (one that is a better producer of oranges) is superior to the generalist country (presumably one that produces oranges as well as other products). This generalist country, the writer tells us, would be inferior to the other. This conclusion does not emerge logically from the writers argument, and it seems to be at odds with everyday reality. Although language is used with some imprecision throughout the essay, the writers meaning is not obscured. The main reasons for the score of 3 are the lack of sufficient development and inappropriate use of examples. Essay Response – Score 2 In the situation of health I feel that specialists are very important. For example if a person has heart problems, choose a heart specialist over a genral medicine Dr. However if a person is having a wide range of syptoms, perhaps choose a Dr. with a wide range of experience might be more helpful. It also depends on the type of problem you are having. For example I would not suggest taking a troubled child to a theorpist who specializes in marriage problems. In some cases have a specialists helps to insure that you are getting the best possibly treatment. On the other hand dealing with a person who has a wide range of experience may be able to find different ways of dealing with a particular problem. Since the quotation did not state exactely what type of specialist we are dealing with it is also hard to determine the importance of having a specialist is. For example the could be health or problems with a car, or basically anything else. I feel that this information should not have been left out. I guess the bottom line is that I feel sometimes a specialist is very important. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 2 This is a seriously flawed analysis of the issue. The response argues in favor of specialists, but neither the reasons nor the examples are persuasive. The example of not taking a troubled child to see a theropist who specializes in marriage problems is both simplistic and off the mark since it differentiates between two specialists, not between a generalist and a specialist. The sentences are so poorly formed and phrased that the argument is at times hard to follow. Nevertheless, this is not a 1 essay: the writer presents a position on the issue, develops that position with some very weak analysis, and communicates some ideas clearly. Essay Response – Score 1 I disagree with the statement about specialists, we need specialists who take individual areas and specialize. A generalists can pinpoint a problem. He or she cannot determine the magnitude of the problem. A specialist can find the root of the problem. When he or she has years working in that specific field. For 13 example, when i got sick i went to a doctor. He did blood work, x-ray, talk to me, ect. He prescribed me a medicine. I got worst. So i decided to go another doctor. Now, i am doing great. A specialist knows the facts right away. Otherwise, it will take longer or not at all. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 1 This response presents a fundamentally deficient discussion of the issue. The first sentence states the writers position in support of specialists, but that position is not followed by a coherent argument. Some of the ideas seem contradictory (e. g. , generalists can pinpoint a problem) and the example is confusing. If the essay explained that the first (unsuccessful) doctor was a generalist and the second (successful) doctor was a specialist, the example would be useful. However, as written, the example is unclear and even misleading. The concluding statement only adds to the confusion. Since most of the sentences are short and choppy, the ideas they try to communicate are also choppy. The writer needs to provide transitional phrases and ideas to bring logical cohesion to this response. Also, basic errors in usage and grammar are pervasive, but it is primarily the lack of a coherent argument that makes this response a 1. Analyze an Argument Task Understanding the Argument Task The Analyze an Argument task assesses your ability to understand, analyze, and evaluate arguments and to clearly convey your analysis in writing. The task consists of a brief passage in which the author makes a case for some course of action or interpretation of events by presenting claims backed by reasons and evidence. Your task is to discuss the logical soundness of the authors case by critically examining the line of reasoning and the use of evidence. This task requires you to read the argument very carefully. You might want to read it more than once and possibly make brief notes about points you want to develop more fully in your response. In reading the argument, you should pay special attention to what is offered as evidence, support, or proof? what is explicitly stated, claimed, or concluded what is assumed or supposed, perhaps without justification or proof what is not stated, but necessarily follows from what is stated In addition, you should consider the structure of the argument- the way in which these elements are linked together to form a line of reasoning; that is, you should recognize the separate, sometimes implicit steps in the thinking process and consider whether the movement from each one to the next is logically sound. In tracing this line, look for transition words and phrases that suggest that the author is attempting to make a logical connection (e. g. , however, thus, therefore, evidently, hence, in conclusion). An important part of performing well on the Argument task is remembering what you are not being asked to do. You are not being asked to discuss whether the statements in the argument are true or accurate; instead, you are being asked whether conclusions and inferences are validly drawn from the statements. You are not being asked to agree or disagree with the position stated; instead, you are being asked to comment on the thinking that underlies the position stated. You are not being asked to express your own views on the subject being discussed (as you were in the Issue task); instead, you are being asked to evaluate the logical soundness of an argument of another writer and, in doing so, to demonstrate the critical thinking, perceptive reading, and analytical writing skills that university faculty consider important for success in graduate school. Analyze an Argument is primarily a critical thinking task requiring a written response. Consequently, the analytical skills displayed in your critique carry great weight in determining your score. 14 Understanding the Context for Writing: Purpose and Audience The purpose of the task is to see how well equipped you are to insightfully analyze an argument written by someone else and to effectively communicate your critique in writing to an academic audience. Your audience consists of college and university faculty who are trained as GRE readers to apply the scoring criteria identified in the scoring guide for the â€Å"Analyze an Argument† task (see page 28). To get a clearer idea of how GRE readers apply the Argument scoring criteria to actual essays, you should review scored sample Argument essay responses and readers commentaries. The sample responses, particularly at the 5 and 6 score levels, will show you a variety of successful strategies for organizing and developing an insightful critique. You will also see many examples of particularly effective uses of language. The readers commentaries discuss specific aspects of analytical writing, such as cogency of ideas, development and support, organization, syntactic variety, and facility with language. These commentaries will point out aspects that are particularly effective and insightful as well as any that detract from the overall effectiveness of the responses. Preparing for the Argument Task Because the Argument task is meant to assess analytical writing and informal reasoning skills that you have developed throughout your education, it has been designed so as not to require any specific course of study or to advantage students with a particular type of training. Many college textbooks on rhetoric and composition have sections on informal logic and critical thinking that might prove helpful, but even these might be more detailed and technical than the task requires. You will not be expected to know methods of analysis or technical terms. For instance, in one topic an elementary school principal might conclude that the new playground equipment has improved student attendance because absentee rates have declined since it was installed. You will not need to see that the principal has committed the post hoc, ergo propter hoc fallacy; you will simply need to see that there are other possible explanations for the improved attendance, to offer some common-sense examples, and perhaps to suggest what would be necessary to verify the conclusion. For instance, absentee rates might have decreased because the climate was mild. This would have to be ruled out in order for the principal’s conclusion to be valid. Although you do not need to know special analytical techniques and terminology, you should be familiar with the directions for the Argument task and with certain key concepts, including the following: alternative explanation- a possible competing version of what might have caused the events in question; an alternative explanation undercuts or qualifies the original explanation because it too can account for the observed facts analysis- the process of breaking something (e. g. , an argument) down into its component parts in order to understand how they work together to make up the whole; also a resentation, usually in writing, of the results of this process argument- a claim or a set of claims with reasons and evidence offered as support; a line of reasoning meant to demonstrate the truth or falsehood of something assumption- a belief, often unstated or unexamined, that someone must hold in order to maintain a particular position; something that is taken for granted but that must be true in order for the conclusion to be true conclusion- the end point reached by a line of reasoning, valid if the reasoning is sound; the resulting assertion counterexample- an example, real or hypothetical, that refutes or disproves a statement in the argument An excellent way to prepare for the Analyze an Argument task is to practice writing on some of the published Argument topics. There is no one way to practice that is best for everyone. Some prefer to start practicing without adhering to the 30-minute time limit. If you follow this approach, take all the time you need to analyze the argument. No matter which approach you take, you should 15 arefully read the argument- you might want to read it over more than once identify as many of its claims, conclusions, and underlying assumptions as possible think of as many alternative explanations and counterexamples as you can think of what additional evidence might weaken or lend support to the claims ask yourself what changes in the argument would make the reasoning more sound Write down each of these thoughts as a brief note. When youve gone as far as you can with your analysis, look over the notes and put them in a good order for discussion (perhaps by numbering them). Then write a critique by fully developing each of your points in turn. Even if you choose not to write a full essay response, you should find it very helpful to practice analyzing a few of the arguments and sketching out your responses. When you become quicker and more confident, you should practice writing some Argument responses within the 30-minute time limit so that you will have a good sense of how to pace yourself in the actual test. For example, you will not want to discuss one point so exhaustively or to provide so many equivalent examples that you run out of time to make your other main points. You might want to get feedback on your response(s) from a writing instructor, a philosophy teacher, or someone who emphasizes critical thinking in his or her course. It can also be very informative to trade papers on the same topic with fellow students and discuss one anothers responses in terms of the scoring guide. Focus not so much on giving the right scores as on seeing how the papers meet or miss the performance standards for each score point and what you therefore need to do in order to improve. How to Interpret Numbers, Percentages, and Statistics in Argument Topics Some arguments contain numbers, percentages, or statistics that are offered as evidence in support of the arguments conclusion. For example, an argument might claim that a certain community event is less popular this year than it was last year because only 100 people attended this year in comparison with 150 last year, a 33 percent decline in attendance. It is important to remember that you are not being asked to do a mathematical task with the numbers, percentages, or statistics. Instead you should evaluate these as evidence that is intended to support the conclusion. In the example above, the conclusion is that a community event has become less popular. You should ask yourself: does the difference between 100 people and 150 people support that conclusion? Note that, in this case, there are other possible explanations; for example, the weather might have been much worse this year, this years event might have been held at an inconvenient time, the cost of the event might have gone up this year, or there might have been another popular event this year at the same time. Each of these could explain the difference in attendance, and thus would weaken the conclusion that the event was less popular. Similarly, percentages might support or weaken a conclusion depending on what actual numbers the percentages represent. Consider the claim that the drama club at a school deserves more funding because its membership has increased by 100 percent. This 100 percent increase could be significant if there had been 100 members and now there are 200 members, whereas the increase would be much less significant if there had been 5 members and now there are 10. Remember that any numbers, percentages, or statistics in Argument topics are used only as evidence in support of a conclusion, and you should always consider whether they actually support the conclusion. The Form of Your Response You are free to organize and develop your critique in any way that you think will effectively communicate your analysis of the argument. Your response may, but need not, incorporate particular writing strategies learned in English composition or writing-intensive college courses. GRE readers will not be looking for a particular developmental strategy or mode of writing. In fact, when faculty are trained to be GRE readers, they review hundreds of Argument responses that, although highly diverse in content and form, display similar levels of critical thinking and analytical writing. Readers will see, for example, some essays at the 6 score level that begin by briefly summarizing the argument and then explicitly stating and developing the main points of the critique. The readers know that a writer can earn a high score by analyzing and developing several points in a critique or by identifying a central flaw in the argument and developing that 16 critique extensively. You might want to look at the sample Argument responses, particularly at the 5 and 6 score levels, to see how other writers have successfully developed and organized their critiques. You should make choices about format and organization that you think support and enhance the overall effectiveness of your critique. This means using as many or as few paragraphs as you consider appropriate for your critique- for example, creating a new paragraph when your discussion shifts to a new point of analysis. You might want to organize your critique around the organization of the argument itself, discussing the argument line by line. Or you might want to first point out a central questionable assumption and then move on to discuss related flaws in the arguments line of reasoning. Similarly, you might want to use examples if they help illustrate an important point in your critique or move your discussion forward (remember, however, that, in terms of your ability to perform the Argument task effectively, it is your critical thinking and analytical writing, not your ability to come up with examples, that is being assessed). What matters is not the form the response takes, but how insightfully you analyze the argument and how articulately you communicate your analysis to academic readers within the context of the task. Sample Argument Topic Hospital statistics regarding people who go to the emergency room after roller skating accidents indicate the need for more protective equipment. Within this group of people, 75 percent of those who had accidents in streets or parking lots were not wearing any protective clothing (helmets, knee pads, etc. ) or any light-reflecting material (clip-on lights, glow-in-the-dark wrist pads, etc. ). Clearly, these statistics indicate that by investing in high-quality protective gear and reflective equipment, roller skaters will greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured in an accident. Strategies for this Topic This argument cites a particular hospital statistic to support the general conclusion that â€Å"investing in highquality protective gear and reflective equipment† will reduce the risk of being severely injured in a roller skating accident. In developing your analysis, you should ask yourself whether the hospital statistic actually supports the conclusion. You might want to ask yourself such questions as: What percentage of all roller skaters goes to the emergency room after roller skating accidents? Are the people who go to the emergency room after roller skating accidents representative of roller skaters in general? Are there people who are injured in roller skating accidents who do not go to the emergency room? Were the roller skaters who went to the emergency room severely injured? Were the 25 percent of roller skaters who were wearing protective gear injured just as severely as the 75 percent who were not wearing the gear? Are streets and parking lots inherently more dangerous for roller skating than other places? Would mid-quality gear and equipment be just as effective as high-quality gear and equipment in reducing the risk of severe injury while roller skating? Are there factors other than gear and equipment- e. g. , weather conditions, visibility, skill of the skaters- that might be more closely correlated with the risk of roller skating injuries? Considering possible answers to questions such as these will help you identify assumptions, alternative explanations, and weaknesses that you can develop in your critique of the argument. 17 Essay Responses and Reader Commentary Essay Response * – Score 6 The notion that protective gear reduces the injuries suffered in accidents seems at first glance to be an obvious conclusion. After all, it is the intent of these products to either provent accidents from occuring in the first place or to reduce the injuries suffered by the wearer should an accident occur. However, the conclusion that investing in high quality protective gear greatly reduces the risk of being severely injured in an accident may mask other (and potentially more significant) causes of injuries and may inspire people to over invest financially and psychologically in protective gear. First of all, as mentioned in the argument, there are two distinct kinds of gear preventative gear (such as light reflecting material) and protective gear (such as helmets). Preventative gear is intended to warn others, presumably for the most part motorists, of the presence of the roller skater. It works only if the other is a responsible and caring individual who will afford the skater the necessary space and attention. Protective gear is intended to reduce the effect of any accident, whether it is caused by an other, the skater or some force of nature. Protective gear does little, if anything, to prevent accidents but is presumed to reduce the injuries that occur in an accident. The statistics on injuries suffered by skaters would be more nteresting if the skaters were grouped into those wearing no gear at all, those wearing protective gear only, those wearing preventative gear only and those wearing both. These statistics could provide skaters with a clearer understanding of whi ch kinds of gear are more beneficial. The argument above is weakened by the fact that it does not take into account the inherent differences between skaters who wear gear and those who do not. If is at least likely that those who wear gear may be generally more responsible and/or safety conscious individuals. The skaters who wear gear may be less likely to cause accidents through careless or dangerous behavior. It may, in fact, be their natural caution and repsonsibility that keeps them out of the emergency room rather than the gear itself. Also, the statistic above is based entirely on those who are skating in streets and parking lots which are relatively dangerous places to skate in the first place. People who are generally more safety conscious (and therefore more likely to wear gear) may choose to skate in safer areas such as parks or back yards. The statistic also goes not differentiate between severity of injuries. The conclusion that safety gear prevents severe injuries suggests that it is presumed that people come to the emergency room only with severe injuries. This is certainly not the case. Also, given that skating is a recreational activity that may be primarily engaged in during evenings and weekends (when doctors offices are closed), skater with less severe injuries may be especially likely to come to the emergency room for treatment. Finally, there is absolutely no evidence provided that high quality (and presumably more expensive) gear is any more beneficial than other kinds of gear. For example, a simple white t-shirt may provide the same preventative benefit as a higher quality, more expensive, shirt designed only for skating. Before skaters are encouraged to invest heavily in gear, a more complete understanding of the benefit provided by individual pieces of gear would be helpful. The argument for safety gear based on emergency room statistics could provide important information and potentially saves lives. Before conclusions about the amount and kinds of investments that should be made in gear are reached, however, a more complete understanding of the benefits are needed. After all, a false confidence in ineffective gear could be just as dangerous as no gear at all. All responses in this publication are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc. , if any. * 18 Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 6 This outstanding response demonstrates the writers insightful analytical skills. The introduction, which notes that adopting the topics fallacious reasoning could . . . nspire people to over invest financially and psychologically in protective gear, is followed by a comprehensive examination of each of the arguments root flaws. Specifically, the writer exposes several points that undermine the argument: that preventive an d protective gear are not the same that skaters who wear gear may be less prone to accidents because they are, by nature, more responsible and cautious that the statistics do not differentiate by the severity of the injuries that gear may not need to be high-quality to be beneficial The discussion is smoothly and logically organized, and each point is thoroughly and cogently developed. In addition, the writing is succinct, economical, and generally error-free. Sentences are varied and complex, and diction is expressive and precise. In sum, this response exemplifies the very top of the 6 range described in the scoring guide. If the writer had been less eloquent or provided fewer reasons to refute the argument, the paper could still have received a 6. Essay Response – Score 5 The argument presented is limited but useful. It indicates a possible relationship between a high percentage of accidents and a lack of protective equipment. The statistics cited compel a further investigation of the usefulness of protective gear in preventing or mitigating roller-skating related injuries. However, the conclusion that protective gear and reflective equipment would greatly reduce. risk of being severely injured is premature. Data is lacking with reference to the total opulation of skaters and the relative levels of experience, skill and physical coordination of that population. It is entirely possible that further research would indicate that most serious injury is averted by the skaters ability to react quickly and sk illfully in emergency situations. Another area of investigation necessary before conclusions can be reached is identification of the types of injuries that occur and the various causes of those injuries. The article fails to identify the most prevalent types of roller-skating related injuries. It also fails to correlate the absence of protective gear and reflective equipment to those injuries. For example, if the majority of injuries are skin abrasions and closed-head injuries, then a case can be made for the usefulness of protective clothing mentioned. Likewise, if injuries are caused by collision with vehicles (e. g. bicycles, cars) or pedestrians, then light-reflective equipment might mitigate the occurences. However, if the primary types of injuries are soft-tissue injuries such as torn ligaments and muscles, back injuries and the like, then a greater case could be made for training and experience as preventative measures. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 5 This strong response gets right to the work of critiquing the argument, observing that it indicates a possible relationship but that its conclusion is premature. It raises three central questions that, if answered, might undermine the soundness of the argument: What are the characteristics of the total population of skaters? What is the usefulness of protective or reflective gear in preventing or mitigating roller skatingrelated injuries? What are the types of injuries sustained and their causes? 19 The writer develops each of these questions by considering possible answers that would either strengthen or weaken the argument. The paper does not analyze the argument as insightfully or develop the critique as fully as required for a 6 paper, but the clear organization, strong control of language, and substantial degree of development warrant more than a score of 4. Essay Response – Score 4 Although the argument stated above discusses the importance of safety equipment as significant part of avoiding injury, the statistics quoted are vague and inconclusive. Simply because 75 percent of the people involved in roller-skating accidents are not wearing the stated equipment does not automatically implicate the lack of equipment as the cause of injury. The term accidents may imply a great variety of injuries. The types of injuries one could incur by not wearing the types of equipment stated above are minor head injuries; skin abrasions or possibly bone fracture of a select few areas such as knees, elbows, hands, etc. (which are in fact most vulnerable to this sport); and/or injuries due to practising the sport during low light times of the day. During any physically demanding activity or sport people are subjected to a wide variety of injuries which cannot be avoided with protective clothing or light-reflective materials. These injuries include inner trauma (e. g. , heart-attack); exhaustion; strained muscles, ligaments, or tendons; etc. Perhaps the numbers and percentages of people injured during roller-skating, even without protective equipment, would decrease greatly if people participating in the sport had proper training, good physical health, warmup properly before beginning (stretching), as well as take other measures to prevent possible injury, such as common-sense, by refraining from performing the activity after proper lighting has ceased and knowing your personal limitations as an individual and athlete. The statistics used in the above reasoning are lacking in proper direction considering their assertions and therefore must be further examined and modified so that proper conclusions can be reached. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 4 This adequate response targets the arguments vague and inconclusive statistics. The essay identifies and critiques the illogical reasoning that results from the misguided use of the arguments statistics: that non-use of equipment may be automatically assumed to be the cause of injury that accidents may refer to minor injuries that injuries may result from other causes - skating in the dark, ailure to train or warm-up properly, failure to recognize ones physical limitations The writer competently grasps the weaknesses of the argument. The ideas are clear and connected, but the response lacks transitional phrases. Development, too, is only adequate. Control of language is better than adequate. The writer achieves both control and cl arity and ably conforms to the conventions of written English. Overall, though, this 4 response lacks the more thorough development that would warrant a score of 5. Essay Response – Score 3 The arguement is well presented and supported, but not completely well reasoned. It is clear and concisely written. The content is logically and smoothly presented. Statistics cited are used to develop support for the recommendation, that roller skaters who invest in protective gear and reflective equipment can reduce their risk of severe, accidental injuries. Examples of the types of protective equipment are described for the reader. Unfortunately, the author of the argement fails to note that merely by purchasing gear and reflective equipment that the skater will be protected. This is, of course, falacious if the skater fails to use the equipment, or uses it incorrectly or inappropriately. It is also an unnecessary assumption that a skater need purchase high-quality gear for the same degree of effectiveness to be achieved. The argument could 20 e improved by taking these issues into consideration, and making recommendations for education and safety awareness to skaters. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 3 The first half of this generally well-written but limited response merely describes the argument. The second half of the p aper identifies two assumptions of the argument: that people who purchase protective gear will use the gear that high-quality gear is more effective than other gear These points are sufficient to constitute some analysis and thus warrant a score of 3. However, neither of these analytic points is developed sufficiently to merit a score of 4. Essay Response – Score 2 To reduce the accidents from roller skating we should consider about it causes and effects concurrently to find the best solution. Basically the roller-skating players are children, they had less experiences to protect themselves from any kind of dangerous. Therefore, it should be a responsible of adult to take care them. Adult should recommend their child to wear any protective clothing, set the rules and look after them while they are playing. In the past roller-skating is limited in the skate yard but when it became popular people normally play it on the street way) Therefore the number of accidents from roller-skating is increased. The skate manufacturer should have a responsibility in producing a protective clothing. They should promote and sell them together with skates. The government or state should set the regulation of playing skate on the street way like they did with the bicycle. To prevent this kind of accident is the best solution but it needs a coorperation among us to have a concious mind to beware and realize its dangerous. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 2 This seriously flawed response, rather than critiquing the argument, suggests ways for adults and skate manufacturers to ensure that children wear protective clothing. In essence, the writer is uncritically accepting the argument. The response exhibits serious and frequent problems in sentence structure and language use. Errors- word choice, verb tenses, subject-verb agreement, punctuation- are numerous and sometimes interfere with meaning, e. g. , . . . it needs a cooperation among us to have a concious mind to beware and realize its dangerous. This essay earns a 2 because it demonstrates both serious linguistic weaknesses and failure to construct a critique based on logical analysis. Essay Response – Score 1 the protective equipment do help to reduce the risk of being severyly injuryed in an accident since there are 75% Of those who had accidents in streets or parking lots were not wearing any protectivel clothing. such as hemlets, kenn pads, etc. or any light-reflecting materials such as clip-on lights, glow-in-the-dark wrist pads ets. f they do have protective eqipment that only a quarter accident may happen, also that can greatly reduce their risk ofbeing severyly injuryed in an accident, that can save some lives and a lot of energy and money for the treatment. the protective equipment d o help to reduce the risk of being severyly injuryed in an accident since there are 75% Of those who had accidents in streets or parking lots were not wearing any 21 protectivel clothing. such as hemlets, kenn pads, etc. or any light-reflecting materials such as clip-on lights, glow-in-the-dark wrist pads ets. if they do have protective eqipment that only a quarter accident may happen, also that can greatly reduce their risk ofbeing severyly injuryed in an accident, that can save some lives and a lot of energy and money for the treatment. he protective equipment do help to reduce the risk of being severyly injuryed in an accident since there are 75% Of those who had accidents in streets or parking lots were not wearing any protectivel clothing. such as hemlets, kenn pads, etc. or any lightreflecting materials such as clip-on lights, glow-in-the-dark wrist pads ets. if they do have protective eqipment that only a quarter accident may happen, also that can greatly reduce their risk of being severyly injuryed in an accident, that can save some lives and a lot of energy and money for the treatment. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 1 This fundamentally deficient response uncritically accepts the reasoning of the topic: the protective equipment do help to reduce the risk of being severyly injuryed in an accident. There is no evidence, though, that the writer is able to understand or analyze the argument; what follows, except for a few additional words, merely copies the topic. This two-sentence response is repeated - verbatim- two more times. Language and usage are equally problematic. The few words that have been added, in combination with the words of the topic, results in incoherence. In sum, this essay fits all of the scoring guide descriptors for a 1. 22 Sample Test The Graduate Record Examinations ® Analytical Writing 1 PRESENT YOUR PERSPECTIVE ON AN ISSUE 45 minutes You will have 45 minutes to plan and compose a response that presents your perspective on a topic you select. A response on any topic other that then one you select will receive a score of zero. You will have a choice between two Issue topics. Each topic will appear as a brief quotation that states or implies an issue of general interest. You are free to accept, reject, or qualify the claim made in the topic, as long as the ideas you present are clearly relevant to the topic you select. Support your views with reasons and examples drawn from such areas as your reading, experience, observations, or academic studies. Before you make your choice, read each topic carefully. Then decide on which topic you could write a more effective and well-reasoned response. GRE readers who are college and university faculty will read your response and evaluate its overall quality, based on how well you consider the complexities and implications of the issue organize, develop, and express your ideas about the issue support your ideas with relevant reasons and examples control the elements of standard written English You may want to take a few minutes to think about the issue you have chosen and to plan a response before you begin writing. Be sure to develop your ideas fully and organize them coherently, but leave time to read what you have written and make any revisions that you think are necessary. 23 Issue Topic Choice Present your perspective on one of the issues below, using relevant reasons and/or examples to support your views. TOPIC 1: â€Å"Both the development of technological tools and the uses to which humanity has put them have created modern civilizations in which loneliness is ever increasing. † TOPIC 2: â€Å"Our declining environment may bring the people of the world together as no politician, philosopher, or war ever could. Environmental problems are global in scope and respect no nation’s boundaries. Therefore, people are faced with the choice of unity and cooperation on the one hand or disunity and a common tragedy on the other. † 24 Sample Test The Graduate Record Examinations ® Analytical Writing 2 ANALYZE AN ARGUMENT 0 minutes You will have 30 minutes to plan and write a critique of an argument presented in the form of a short passage. A critique of any other argument will receive a score of zero. Analyze the line of reasoning in the argument. Be sure to c onsider what, if any, questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and, if evidence is cited, how well it supports the conclusion. You can also discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the arguments, what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, and what additional information might help you better evaluate its conclusion. Note that you are not being asked to present your views on the subject. GRE readers who are college and university faculty will read your critique and evaluate its overall quality, based on how well you identify and analyze important features of the argument organize, develop, and express your critique of the argument support you critique with relevant reasons and examples control the elements of standard written English Before you begin writing, you may want to take a few minutes to evaluate the argument and to plan a response. Be sure to develop your ideas fully and organize them coherently, but leave time to read what you have written and make any revisions that you think are necessary. 25 Argument Topic Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. TOPIC: Six months ago the region of Forestville increased the speed limit for vehicles traveling on the region’s highways by ten miles per hour. Since that change took effect, the number of automobile accidents in that region has increased by 15 percent. But the speed limit in Elmsford, a region neighboring Forestville, remained unchanged, and automobile accidents declined slightly during the same six-month period. Therefore, if the citizens of Forestville want to reduce the number of automobile accidents on the region’s highways, they should campaign to reduce Forestville’s speed limit to what it was before the increase. 26 GRE Scoring Guide: Present Your Perspective on an Issue ________________________________ Score 6 A 6 paper presents a cogent, well-articulated analysis of the complexities of the issue and conveys meaning skillfully. A typical paper in this category presents an insightful position on the issue develops the position with compelling reasons and/or persuasive examples sustains a well-focused, well-organized analysis, connecting ideas logically expresses ideas fluently and precisely, using effective vocabulary and sentence variety demonstrates facility with the conventions (i. e. , grammar, usage, and mechanics) of standard written English but may have minor errors __________________________________ Score 3 A 3 paper demonstrates some competence in its analysis of the issue and in conveying meaning but is obviously flawed. A typical paper in this category exhibits ONE OR MORE of the following characteristics: is vague or limited in presenting or developing a position on the issue is weak in the use of relevant reasons or examples is poorly focused and/or poorly organized has problems in language and sentence structure that result in a lack of clarity contains occasional major errors or frequent minor errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics that can interfere with meaning _______________________________ Score 5 A 5 paper presents a generally thoughtful, well-developed analysis of the complexities of the issue and conveys meaning clearly. A typical paper in this category presents a well-considered position on the issue develops the position with logically sound reasons and/or well-chosen examples is focused and generally well organized, connecting ideas appropriately expresses ideas clearly and well, using appropriate vocabulary and sentence variety demonstrates facility with the conventions of standard written English but may have minor errors ______________________________ Score 2 A 2 paper demonstrates serious weaknesses in analytical writing. A typical paper in this category exhibits ONE OR MORE of the following characteristics: is unclear or seriously limited in presenting or developing a position on the issue provides few, if any, relevant reasons or examples is unfocused and/or disorganized has serious problems in the use of language and sentence structure that frequently interfere with meaning contains serious errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics that frequently obscure meaning ________________________________ Score 4 A 4 paper presents a competent analysis of the issue and conveys meaning adequately. A typical paper in this category presents a clear position on the issue develops the position on the issue with relevant reasons and/or examples is adequately focused and organized expresses ideas with reasonable clarity generally demonstrates control of the conventions of standard written English but may have some errors _______________________________________ Score 1 A 1 paper demonstrates fundamental defic iencies in analytical writing skills. A typical paper in this category exhibits ONE OR MORE of the following characteristics: provides little or no evidence of the ability to understand and analyze the issue provides little or no evidence of the ability to develop an organized response has severe problems in language and sentence structure that persistently interfere with meaning contains pervasive errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics that result in incoherence _______________________________________ Score 0 Off topic, in a foreign language, merely copies the topic, consists of only keystroke characters, or is illegible, blank, or nonverbal _______________________________________ Score NS Blank 27 GRE Scoring Guide: Analyze an Argument ___________________________________ _____________________________ Score 6 A 6 paper presents a cogent, well-articulated critique of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully. A typical paper in this category clearly identifies important features of the argument and analyzes them insightfully develops ideas cogently, organizes them logically, and connects them with clear transitions effectively supports the main points of the critique demonstrates control of language, including appropriate word choice and sentence variety demonstrates facility with the conventions (i. e. , grammar, usage, and mechanics) of standard written English but may have minor errors Score 3 A 3 paper demonstrates some competence in its critique of the argument and in conveying meaning but is obviously flawed. A typical paper in this category exhibits ONE OR MORE of the following characteristics: does not identify or analyze most of the important features of the argument, although some analysis of the argument is present mainly analyzes tangential or irrelevant matters, or reasons poorly is limited in the logical development and organization of ideas offers support of little relevance and value for points of the critique lacks clarity in expressing ideas contains occasional major errors or frequent minor errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics that can interfere with meaning _______________________________________ Score 5 A 5 paper presents a generally thoughtful, well-developed critique of the argument and conveys meaning clearly. A typical paper in this category clearly identifies important features of the argument and analyzes them in a generally perceptive way develops ideas clearly, organizes them logically, and connects them with appropriate transitions sensibly supports the main points of the critique demonstrates control of language, including appropriate word choice and sentence variety demonstrates facility with the conventions of standard written English but may have minor errors _______________________________________ Score 2 A 2 paper demonstrates serious weaknesses in analytical writing. A typical paper in this category exhibits ONE OR MORE of the following characteristics: does not present a critique based on logical analysis, but may instead present the writers own views on the subject does not develop ideas, or is disorganized and illogical provides little, if any, relevant or reasonable support has serious problems in the use of language and in sentence structure that frequently interfere with meaning contains serious errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics that frequently obscure meaning ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Score 4 A 4 paper presents a competent critique of the argument and conveys meaning adequately. A typical paper in this category identifies and analyzes important features of the argument develops and organizes ideas satisfactorily but may not connect them with transitions supports the main points of the critique demonstrates sufficient control of language to express ideas with reasonable clarity Sco re 1 A 1 paper demonstrates fundamental deficiencies in both analysis AND writing. A typical paper in this category exhibits MORE THAN ONE of the following characteristics: provides little or no evidence of the ability to understand and analyze the argument provides little or no evidence of the ability to develop an organized response has severe problems in language and sentence structure that persistently interfere with meaning contains pervasive errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics that result in incoherence generally demonstrates control of the conventions of standard written English but may have some errors _______________________________________ Score 0 Off topic, in a foreign language, merely copies the topic, consists of only keystroke characters, or is illegible, blank, or nonverbal. _______________________________________ Score NS Blank 28 Analytical Writing Score Level Descriptions Although the GRE Analytical Writing measure contains two discrete analytical writing tasks, a single combined score is reported because it is more reliable than is a score for either task alone. The reported score, the average of the scores for the two tasks, ranges from 0 to 6, in half-point increments. The statements below describe, for each score level, the overall quality of analytical writing demonstrated across both the Issue and Argument tasks. Because the test assesses analytical writing, critical thinking skills (the ability to reason, assemble evidence to develop a position, and communicate complex ideas) weigh more heavily than the writers control of fine points of grammar or the mechanics of writing (e. g. , spelling). SCORES 6 and 5. – Sustains insightful, indepth analysis of complex ideas; develops and supports main points with logically compelling reasons and/or highly persuasive examples; is well focused and well organized; skillfully uses sentence variety and precise vocabulary to convey meaning effectively; demonstrates superior facility with sentence structure and language usage but may have minor errors that do not interfere with meaning. SCORES 5 and 4. 5 – Provides generally thoughtful analysis of complex ideas; develops and supports main points with logically sound reasons and/or well-chosen examples; is generally focused and well organized; uses sentence variety and vocabulary to convey meaning clearly; demonstrates good control of sentence structure and language usage but may have minor errors that do not interfere with meaning. SCORES 4 and 3. – Provides competent analysis of complex ideas; develops and supports main points with relevant reasons and/or examples; is adequately organized; conveys meaning with reasonable clarity; demonstrates satisfactory control of sentence structure and language usage but may have some errors that affect clarity. SCORES 3 and 2. 5 – Displays some competence in analytical writ ing, although the writing is flawed in at least one of the following ways: limited analysis or development; weak organization; weak control of sentence structure or language usage, with errors that often result in vagueness or lack of clarity. SCORES 2 and 1. 5 – Displays serious weaknesses in analytical writing. The writing is seriously flawed in at least one of the following ways: serious lack of analysis or development; lack of organization; serious and frequent problems in sentence structure or language usage, with errors that obscure meaning. SCORES 1 and . 5 – Displays fundamental deficiencies in analytical writing. The writing is fundamentally flawed in at least one of the following ways: content that is extremely confusing or mostly irrelevant to the assigned tasks; little or no development; severe and pervasive errors that result in incoherence. SCORE 0 – The examinees analytical writing skills cannot be evaluated because the responses do not address any part of the assigned tasks, are merely attempts to copy the assignments, are in a foreign language, or display only indecipherable text. SCORE NS – The examinee produced no text whatsoever. 29